The Eurocodes are limit state codes like the British Standards, although are perhaps a little more explicitly based in reliability theory. They are further divided into parts covering individual types of structures, such as buildings, bridges, silos, towers and masts. In total, there are 58 parts to the ten Eurocodes.

Many of the Eurocode rules are based on the same theory as the British Standards, although the Eurocodes embody the most up to date research on many aspects of structural behaviour.

The Eurocode clauses are structured in a slightly different way in that they contain principles that must be satisfied and application rules that offer a way of satisfying the principles. This is intended to stimulate innovation. The Eurocodes are also less prescriptive than the British Standards, with more aspects left open to the designer.

The relevant codes to the Design of Vehicle Restraint Systems are:
BS EN1991-1-1 General actions. Densities, self-weight, imposed loads for buildings

Extracts from EN1991-1-1 : 2002 & EN1991-1-7 : 2006 confirm the following:
Table 6.12 Horizontal loads on partition walls and parapets (category F & G covering car park areas).

Annex B defines the performance criteria for Vehicle Barrier for Car Parks. For a rigid barrier this equates to a 150kN applied load.

Annex B also advises on specific areas where 'half force' and 'twice force' loads should also be applied.

Table NA.8 (National annex to BS EN 1991-1-1 : 2002) confirming requirements of pedestrian loading of 1.5kN and vehicle loading to Annex B.

Vehicle barriers are defined to be installed at a level of 375mm above the finished floor, this is generally used as a minimum with the maximum extending to 500mm for parking bays and 610mm for ramps.

The loading calculation defined as:
F= 0.5MV²/δc + δb

M = Vehicle Mass
V = Velocity in m/s
δc = Deformation of Vehicle
δb = Barrier Deflection

F= (0.5 x 1500.0 kg x 4.47 m/s²) / 100 mm + 0 mm

F= 150 kN


Pedestrian Handrail systems are defined within Part K of the UK Building regulations. The minimum height requirement being 1100mm above finished floor level and systems must be anti climb where a fall risk is viable.


The fourth edition of the IStructE "Design recommendations for multi-storey and underground car parks" (March 2011) also forms a significant part of the clarification for the use of vehicle barriers and design considerations within multi-storey car parks.